Generalized Low Degree Check for Degree < 2^l with Application to FRI

Problem Statement

Consider a polynomial f(x) over a finite-field \mathbb{F}_q defined by its evaluations f_i = f(\omega^i), where \omega is the n-th root of unity of A(x) = x^n - 1 = 0. The Lagrange interpolation of f(x) based on Barycentric formula is

A'(x) = nx^{n-1}
\begin{align} f(x) & = A(x)\sum_{i=0}^{n-1} \frac{f(\omega^i)}{A'(\omega^i)} \frac{1}{x - \omega^i} \\ & = \frac{x^n - 1}{n} \sum_{i=0}^{n-1} \frac{f_i }{\omega^{i(n-1)}(x - \omega^i)} \\ & = \frac{x^n - 1}{n} \sum_{i=0}^{n-1} \frac{f_i \omega^i}{x - \omega^i} \end{align}

Now given m = 2^l \leq n, we want to check that the degree of f(x) is less than m. Note that for m = \frac{n}{2}, Dankrad has proposed a check here

Low Degree Check

Suppose \omega_i ‘s are the roots of unity ordered by reverse bit order. E.g., if n = 8, then [ \omega_0, ..., \omega_7] = [\omega^0, \omega^4, \omega^2, \omega^6, \omega^1, \omega^5, \omega^3, \omega^7]. Further, let us define y_i = f(\omega_i), which is the reverse-bit ordered version of f_i. Then, we define \Omega = \{\omega_0, …, \omega_{m-1}\}, and the coset H_i = h_i \Omega with h_i = \omega^i . For each coset H_i, we have

B_i(x) = \prod_{x_i \in H_i} (x - x_i) = x^m-h_i^{m}
B_i'(x) = mx^{m-1}
\begin{align} f_i(x)& =B_i(x)\sum_{j = i m}^{(i+1)m - 1} \frac{f(\omega_j)}{B'_i(\omega_j)}\frac{1}{x-\omega_j} \\ & = \frac{x^m - h_i^m}{m } \sum_{j=im}^{(i+1)m - 1} \frac{y_j}{\omega_j^{m-1}(x - \omega_j)} \\ & = \frac{x^m - h_i^m}{m h_i^m} \sum_{j=im}^{(i+1)m - 1} \frac{y_j \omega_j}{x - \omega_j} \end{align}

To check if f(x) ’s degree is less than m, we sample a random point r and verify that

\begin{align} f_i(r) = f_j(r), \forall i,j \end{align}

(Equation (7))

Note that if m = n/2, the check will be exactly the same as Dankrad’s.

Proof and Code

See Dankrad’s Notes and

Application to FRI Low Degree Check

The FRI (Fast Reed-Solomon Interactive Oracle Proofs of Proximity) aims to provide a proof of a close low degree of a polynomial f(x) given its evaluations f_i over roots of unity \omega^i (see and The basic idea is to re-interpret f(x) = q(x, x^m), where m is a power of 2 (commonly use m = 4) and q(x, y) is a 2D polynomial, whose degree in x is less than m, and degree in y is less than \frac{deg(f(x))}{m} . If deg(f(x)) is less than N, then f'(y) = q(r, y) will have degree < \frac{N}{m}, where r is a random evaluation point. Therefore, we just need to verify the degree of f'(y), which can be further done recursively. To build f'(y), we have the following proposition:

Proposition: Given reversed ordered n-th roots of unity \omega_i, i = 0, …, n-1, and the evaluations y_i = f(\omega_i), the reversed ordered \frac{n}{m} th roots of unity \phi_i = \omega^{m}_{im}, i = 0, …, \frac{n}{m}-1 , and the evaluations of y'_i = f'(\phi_i) = f_i(r).

Proof: It is trivial to prove \phi_i = \omega^{m}_{im}. For y'_i, we have

y'_i = f'(\phi_i) = q(r, \omega^m_{im}).

Note that for q(x, y), if y is fixed, r(x) = q(x, y) is a polynomial with degree < m. Let y = \omega^m_{im}, the roots of y is \omega_{im +j}, 0 \leq j < m, then we can find m distinct evaluations of r(x) at m positions \omega_{im +j}, 0 \leq j < m, with r(\omega_{im+j}) = q(\omega_{im+j}, \omega^m_{im+j}) = f(\omega_{im+j}) = y_{im+j} = f_i(\omega_{im+j}). Since deg(f_i(x)) < m, this means that given y = \omega^m_{im}, r(x) = f_i(x), and thus we have

q(r, \omega^m_{im}) =f_i(r).


A couple of interesting comments here: