The most notable things to me from this are:
Several opcodes are currently vastly underpriced in gas. Particularly,
- BLOCKHASH is also mentioned but that gas fee went up in Constantinople. It may still need to be increased further.
Nodes with beefy RAM seem to have significant competitive advantages over more consumer grade nodes (16GB).
There’s likely some database optimizations we could make in LEVELDB to improve performance and rreduce variability—particularly on lower-end machines.
It may be sensible for client operators to publish suggested specs for minimal hardware.
Verifiable computing methods will definitely help.