I’ve started working on libraries of STARK gadgets (basically, just AIR for different constructs written in AirAssembly). So far, I’ve put together just a few gadgets which are located here. There are currently 2 libraries: one for a 128-bit field and another one for a 224-bit field.
The current list of gadgets includes:
- Poseidon hash function - this is a simple gadget which allows creating proofs for pre-image of Poseidon hash function.
- Merkle path authentication - also a relatively simple gadget allows proving that you know a path to specific node in a Merkle tree. Uses Poseidon hash function.
- Merkle tree update - a gadget that allows proving that a sparse Merkle tree was updated correctly (more info below).
- Schnorr signature verification - this gadget is available only for the 224-bit field library, and I’ve described it in some details here.
Merkle tree update:
This is a new gadget I’ve put together just recently. It works as follows:
- In the 224-bit version, the execution trace consists of 12 registers (or 24 registers in 128-bit version):
a. The first 6 registers are used to validate Merkle path to a given leaf using the pre-update value of the leaf.
b. The other 6 registers are used to validate Merkle path to the same leaf, but using the post-update value of the leaf.
- If the update was done correctly, at the end of the execution trace, one of the registers will contain the old tree root, while another register will contain a new tree root. And these can be verified using boundary constraints.
You check out a working example here.
In the current implementation, the STARK proves only that a Merkle tree was updated correctly. It is possible, with relatively little effort, to create a similar gadget but where the verifier would also be able to check the exact values of the leaf (before and after update).
Overall, there is still a lot that can be improved about the gadgets, both, in terms of functionality and efficiency. So, by all means, play around withe them - but don’t use them in production.
If anyone has thoughts about other gadgets that might be useful (or about improvements to the current ones) - feedback is always welcome!