State minimized implementation on current evm


In an effort to implement the functionality described in the post State-minimised executions , I’ve worked up the following contract for a ‘virtual token’ that allows for the holding of state in a Double-batched Merkle log accumulator as proposed by @JustinDrake.

This is a toy implementation to show what I mean by ‘virtual functions’. The idea being that users would call the Transfer() function to emit an event that indicates that they want to transfer. The Collators respond to that call bo collecting witnesses from the provided dataHash(perhaps via IPFS) and using the vTransfer() function to calculate the logs.

My original thought was to have the virtual function emit logs as it was run in an off chain evm, but with current tooling those logs are discarded or ignored so instead accumulate the new logs in the results bytes. This makes the code messier, but it generally works.

pragma solidity ^0.4.18;

import "./BytesLib.sol";

contract VirtualToken {

address public owner;
uint256 public totalSupply;

event NewBranch(bytes32 indexed addressFrom, bytes32 amountFrom, bytes32 indexed addressTo, bytes32 amountTo, bytes32 indexed parent);
event SwapLeaf(bytes32 indexed oldLeaf, bytes32 indexed newLeaf);

function VirtualToken() public{
    owner = msg.sender;
    totalSupply = 1000000 * 10**18;
    DataLog(keccak256(address(this), "balance", msg.sender),1,0, bytes32(totalSupply));

function getKeyProof(bytes32 key, bytes data) pure returns(bytes32[] result){
    result = new bytes32[](8);
    uint bytePosition = 0;
    while(bytePosition <= data.length){
        uint length = uint256(BytesLib.toBytes32(BytesLib.slice(data, bytePosition, 32)));
        bytes32 thisKey = BytesLib.toBytes32(BytesLib.slice(data, bytePosition + 32, 32));
        if(thisKey == key){
            for(uint thisGroup = 1; thisGroup < length; thisGroup++){
                bytes32 aGroup = BytesLib.toBytes32(BytesLib.slice(data,bytePosition + (32 * thisGroup), 32));

                result[thisGroup - 1] = aGroup;
            return ;
        bytePosition = bytePosition + (32 * length);

event DataLog(bytes32 path, uint logType, uint nonce, bytes32 value);

bytes32[8192] public bottomLayer;
uint bottomLayerPosition;
bytes32[] public topLayer;

function pushLog(uint logType, uint nonce, bytes32 value, bytes32[] proof, bytes startBytes) internal returns(bytes result) {
  result = startBytes;
  result = BytesLib.concat(result, BytesLib.fromBytes32(proof[0]));
  result = BytesLib.concat(result, BytesLib.fromBytes32(bytes32(logType)));
  result = BytesLib.concat(result, BytesLib.fromBytes32(bytes32(nonce)));
  result = BytesLib.concat(result, BytesLib.fromBytes32(value));
  //DataLog(proof[0], logType, uint(proof[2]) + 1, value);

function pushDel(bytes32[] proof, bytes startBytes) internal returns(bytes result){
    result = startBytes;
    result = pushLog(2, uint(proof[2]), proof[3], proof, result);

function pushAdd(bytes32 newValue, bytes32[] proof, bytes startBytes) internal returns(bytes result){
    result = startBytes;
    result = pushLog(1, uint(proof[2]) + 1, newValue, proof, result);

function publishCollation(bytes32 newBottomCollation, bytes32 newTopCollation) public {
    if(newTopCollation == 0x0){
        bottomLayer[bottomLayerPosition] = newBottomCollation;
    } else {
        bottomLayerPosition = 0;


function vTransfer(bytes data) view returns(bytes results){

    address sender = address(getKeyProof(keccak256("msg.sender"), data)[1]);
    bytes32[] memory senderProof = getKeyProof(keccak256(address(this), "balance", sender), data);
    require(verifyProof(keccak256(address(this), "balance", sender), senderProof));
    uint senderBalance =  uint(senderProof[3]);

    address destination = address(getKeyProof(keccak256("destination"), data)[1]);
    bytes32[] memory destinationProof = getKeyProof(keccak256(address(this),"balance", destination), data);
    require(verifyProof(keccak256(address(this), "balance", destination), destinationProof));
    uint destinationBalance = uint(destinationProof[3]);

    uint amount = uint(getKeyProof(keccak256("amount"), data)[1]);

    require(senderBalance >= amount);

    //invalidate existing proofs
    //todo: what if an item goes to 0

    results = pushDel(senderProof, results);
    if (destinationBalance > 0) {
     results = pushDel(destinationProof, results);

    //publish new proofs
    destinationBalance = destinationBalance + amount;
    senderBalance = senderBalance - amount;

    if(senderBalance > 0){
        results = pushAdd(bytes32(senderBalance), senderProof, results);

    if(destinationBalance > 0){
        results = pushAdd(bytes32(destinationBalance), destinationProof, results);

    return results;


/* things that need to be in the log
    inputDataHash: -> maybe put everything but signature here
    signatureInputDataHash: -> to ecrecover sender

    //value will need to be stored in escrow until the op can be proven to have run and a reciept generated

    //structure of data passed to a function




event Transfer(bytes32 dataHash, bytes signature);

function transfer(bytes32 dataHash, bytes sig) public{
    Transfer(dataHash, sig);

 //utility function that can verify merkel proofs
//todo: can be optimized
//todo: move to library
function calcRoot(bytes32 path,  bytes32[] proof) constant public returns(bytes32 lastHash, uint logType, uint nonce, bytes32 proofPath, bytes32 value){
   for(uint thisProof = 0; thisProof < proof.length; thisProof++){
    if(thisProof == 0){
       require(path == proof[thisProof]);
       proofPath = path;
     } else if(thisProof == 2){
         nonce = uint(proof[thisProof]);
     } else if(thisProof == 1){
         logType = uint(proof[thisProof]);
         if(logType == 3){
     } else if(thisProof == 3){
       value = proof[thisProof];
       lastHash = keccak256(path,logType, nonce, value);
     } else if(proof[thisProof] == 0x0){
     } else{
       if(proof[thisProof] == lastHash){
        if(proof[thisProof + 1] != 0x0) {
          lastHash = keccak256(lastHash, proof[thisProof + 1]);
        } else {
          lastHash = keccak256(lastHash);

       } else {
         require(proof[thisProof + 1] == lastHash);
         lastHash = keccak256(proof[thisProof], lastHash);

//utility function that can verify merkel proofs
//todo: can be optimized
//todo: move to library
function verifyProof(bytes32 path,  bytes32[] proof) constant public returns(bool){
   bytes32 lastHash;
   bytes32 emptyBytes;
   bytes32 value;
   uint nonce;
   uint logType;

   (lastHash, logType, nonce, path,  value) = calcRoot(path, proof);

   if(nonce == 3){
       return true;

   for(uint thisLayer; thisLayer < bottomLayer.length; thisLayer++){
       if(bottomLayer[thisLayer] == lastHash){
           return true;

   for(thisLayer = 0; thisLayer < topLayer.length; thisLayer++){
       if(topLayer[thisLayer] == lastHash){
           return true;
   return false;


The following code builds a little tree generator that helps manage the state of a tree and to produce Merkle proofs. These proofs can probably be streamlined as I’m including derived hashes in the proofs for simplicity’s sake. Although since we are doing these virtually the size of the proofs only affects the bandwidth for collators, and the proofs aren’t that big.

class DataLogTree
  constructor: ()->
    @web3Utils = require('web3-utils')
    @root = null
    @layers = []
  addItem: (logType, nonce, path, value)=>
    @layers[0].push [logType, nonce, path, value]
  getVar: (key, value)=>
    map = []
    return map
  getNullProof: (key)=>
    map = []
    map.push key
    return map
  proofBytes: (items)=>
    bytes = "0x" (item)=> (subItem)=>
        bytes = bytes + subItem.slice(2)
    return bytes
  proofBytesArray: (myBytes)=>
  parseLogs: (logsBytes)=>
    logsBytes = logsBytes.slice(2)
    position = 0
    logs = []
    while position < logsBytes.length
      logs.push [
        "0x" + logsBytes.substring(position,position + 64)
        "0x" + logsBytes.substring(position + 64,position + 128)
        "0x" + logsBytes.substring(position + 128,position + 192)
        "0x" + logsBytes.substring(position + 192,position + 256)
      position = position + 256
    return logs
  getProof: (type, nonce, path)=>
    map = []
    seek = null
    console.log type
    console.log nonce
    console.log path
    # 'looking for ' + key
    # to produce a proof we look through each layer from bottom to top looking for first the
    # passed in key and then the hash combination
    for thisLayer in [0...@layers.length]
      console.log 'seeking layer '+ thisLayer
      for thisItem in [0...@layers[thisLayer].length]
        console.log 'inspecting:' + thisItem
        console.log @layers[thisLayer][thisItem]
        if thisLayer is 0
          console.log 'in 0'
          if @layers[thisLayer][thisItem][0] is path and @layers[thisLayer][thisItem][1] is type and @layers[thisLayer][thisItem][2] is nonce
            console.log 'found 0'
            map.push @layers[thisLayer][thisItem][0]
            map.push @layers[thisLayer][thisItem][1]
            map.push @layers[thisLayer][thisItem][2]
            map.push @layers[thisLayer][thisItem][3]
            console.log map
            seek = @hasher map[0], map[1], map[2], map[3]
            console.log 'new seek is ' + seek
          # The found item will be either on the left or right hand side
          if @layers[thisLayer][thisItem][0] is seek
            # console.log 'found seek in position 0'
            # push the item onto the proof and find the next item
            map.push seek
            if @layers[thisLayer][thisItem][1]?
              map.push @layers[thisLayer][thisItem][1]
              seek = @hasher @layers[thisLayer][thisItem][0], @layers[thisLayer][thisItem][1]
              map.push @web3Utils.padLeft(0,64)
              seek = @hasher @layers[thisLayer][thisItem][0]
            console.log 'new seek is ' + seek
            console.log map
          if @layers[thisLayer][thisItem][1] is seek
            #console.log 'found seek in position 1'
            # push the item onto the proof and find the next item
            map.push @layers[thisLayer][thisItem][0]
            map.push seek
            seek = @hasher @layers[thisLayer][thisItem][0], @layers[thisLayer][thisItem][1]
            console.log 'new seek is ' + seek
            console.log map
          if thisItem is @layers[thisLayer].length
            throw 'seek not found'
    if seek is @root
      map.unshift(@web3Utils.padLeft(@web3Utils.toHex(map.length + 1),64))
      return map
      throw 'root not found'
  hasher:(val1, val2, val3, val4) =>
    if val4?
      hash = @web3Utils.soliditySha3({t:"bytes",v:val1},{t:"bytes",v:val2},{t:"bytes",v:val3},{t:"bytes",v:val4})
    else if val2?
      hash = @web3Utils.soliditySha3({t:"bytes",v:val1},{t:"bytes",v:val2})
      hash = @web3Utils.soliditySha3({t:"bytes",v:val1})
    return hash
  buildTree: ()=>
    if @layers[1]?.length > 0
      @layers = [@layers[0]]
    console.log @layers[0].length
    pair = []
    currentLayer = 0
    console.log 'currentLayer:' + currentLayer
    console.log 'currentLayer Length:' + @layers[currentLayer].length

    if @layers[currentLayer].length is 1
      console.log @layers[currentLayer]
      hash = @hasher @layers[currentLayer][0][0], @layers[currentLayer][0][1], @layers[currentLayer][0][2], @layers[currentLayer][0][3]
      @root = hash
      console.log @root

    while @layers[currentLayer]? and @layers[currentLayer].length > 1
      console.log 'in layer loop'
      console.log currentLayer
      console.log @layers[currentLayer]
      console.log 'end'

      @layers.push []
      console.log @layers
      #console.log @layers[currentLayer]

      for thisItem in @layers[currentLayer]
        console.log thisItem
        #console.log 'odd item' if thisItem.length != 2

        if currentLayer is 0
          console.log 'building 0 layer'
          hash = @hasher thisItem[0], thisItem[1], thisItem[2], thisItem[3]
          console.log hash
          console.log 'building layer ' + currentLayer
          if thisItem[1]?
            hash = @hasher thisItem[0], thisItem[1]
            hash = @hasher thisItem[0]

        #console.log hash
        pair.push hash
        console.log 'update pair'
        console.log pair.length

        if pair.length is 2
          console.log 'pushing hash'
          @layers[currentLayer + 1].push [pair[0],pair[1]]
          pair = []

      if pair.length is 1
        console.log 'pushing leftover hash'
        @layers[currentLayer + 1].push [pair[0]]
        pair = []
      console.log 'advancing layer'
      currentLayer = currentLayer + 1
      if currentLayer > 16
        throw new Error('yo')
    console.log 'done'
    console.log @layers

    @root = @hasher @layers[@layers.length - 1][0][0], @layers[@layers.length - 1][0][1]
    console.log @root

exports.DataLogTree = DataLogTree

Here is a truffle scenario that runs three transactions

console.log 'hello'
web3Utils = require('web3-utils')
VirtualToken =  artifacts.require('./VirtualToken.sol')
DataLogTree = require('../src/DataLogTree.js')

contract 'VirtualToken', (paccount)->
  owner = paccount[0]
  firstPayee = paccount[1]
  secondPayee = paccount[2]

  setUpNetwork = (options)=>
    return new Promise (resolve, reject)=>
      results = {}
      console.log 'creating virtual token'
      tree = new DataLogTree.DataLogTree()
      web3.eth.getBlockNumber (err, result)=>
        startBlock = result
        console.log startBlock
        token = await owner)
          token: token
          startBlock: startBlock
          tree: tree

  it "can set crete token", ->
    network = await setUpNetwork()
    logs = await new Promise (resolve, reject)=>
      network.token.DataLog({},{fromBlock: network.startBlock,toBlock:'latest'}).get (err, foundLogs)=>
        resolve foundLogs

    console.log logs

    genesisLog = null (o)->
      console.log o
      if o.event is 'DataLog'
        genesisLog = o
        #console.log [o.args.logType]#, web3Utils.padLeft(web3Utils.toHex(o.nonce),64), o.path, o.value]
        network.tree.addItem(o.args.path, web3Utils.padLeft(web3Utils.toHex(o.args.logType),64), web3Utils.padLeft(web3Utils.toHex(o.args.nonce),64), o.args.value)
        #console.log o.args

    console.log 'building tree'

    console.log network.tree.root

    console.log 'getting proof'
    proof = network.tree.getProof(web3Utils.padLeft(web3Utils.toHex(genesisLog.args.logType),64), web3Utils.padLeft(web3Utils.toHex(genesisLog.args.nonce),64), genesisLog.args.path)
    console.log proof

    expectedRoot = web3Utils.soliditySha3(proof[1],proof[2],proof[3],proof[4])

    assert.equal expectedRoot, network.tree.root

    txn = await network.token.publishCollation(expectedRoot, "0x0")

    transactionBytes = []
    transactionBytes.push network.tree.getVar(web3Utils.soliditySha3("msg.sender"), web3Utils.padLeft(owner, 64))
    transactionBytes.push proof
    transactionBytes.push network.tree.getVar(web3Utils.soliditySha3("amount"), web3Utils.padLeft(web3Utils.toHex(1000), 64))
    transactionBytes.push network.tree.getVar(web3Utils.soliditySha3("destination"), web3Utils.padLeft(firstPayee,64))
    transactionBytes.push network.tree.getNullProof(web3Utils.soliditySha3(network.token.address,"balance", firstPayee))

    console.log transactionBytes
    myBytes = network.tree.proofBytes(transactionBytes)

    console.log myBytes

    console.log '["' + network.tree.proofBytesArray(myBytes).join('","') + '"]'

    txn = await

    console.log ' trying second transaction ********'

    logs = network.tree.parseLogs txn

    console.log logs

    state1Tree = new DataLogTree.DataLogTree()

    for thisItem in logs
      state1Tree.addItem(thisItem[0], thisItem[1], thisItem[2], thisItem[3])

    console.log 'building state1Tree'


    txn = await network.token.publishCollation(state1Tree.root, "0x0")

    console.log 'getting proof'
    proof = state1Tree.getProof(web3Utils.padLeft(web3Utils.toHex(1),64), web3Utils.padLeft(web3Utils.toHex(1),64), web3Utils.soliditySha3(network.token.address,"balance", firstPayee))
    console.log proof

    transactionBytes = []
    transactionBytes.push network.tree.getVar(web3Utils.soliditySha3("msg.sender"), web3Utils.padLeft(firstPayee, 64))
    transactionBytes.push proof
    transactionBytes.push network.tree.getVar(web3Utils.soliditySha3("amount"), web3Utils.padLeft(web3Utils.toHex(500), 64))
    transactionBytes.push network.tree.getVar(web3Utils.soliditySha3("destination"), web3Utils.padLeft(secondPayee,64))
    transactionBytes.push network.tree.getNullProof(web3Utils.soliditySha3(network.token.address,"balance", secondPayee))

    console.log 'transaction bytes for second transaction'
    console.log transactionBytes

    myBytes = network.tree.proofBytes(transactionBytes)

    txn = await

    console.log 'second transaction results'

    logs = network.tree.parseLogs txn

    console.log logs

    console.log ' trying third transaction ******************************************'

    state2Tree = new DataLogTree.DataLogTree()

    for thisItem in logs
      state2Tree.addItem(thisItem[0], thisItem[1], thisItem[2], thisItem[3])

    console.log state2Tree.layers[0]


    txn = await network.token.publishCollation(state2Tree.root, "0x0")

    proof = state2Tree.getProof(web3Utils.padLeft(web3Utils.toHex(1),64), web3Utils.padLeft(web3Utils.toHex(1),64), web3Utils.soliditySha3(network.token.address,"balance", secondPayee))
    console.log proof

    secondProof = state1Tree.getProof(web3Utils.padLeft(web3Utils.toHex(1),64), web3Utils.padLeft(web3Utils.toHex(1),64), web3Utils.soliditySha3(network.token.address,"balance", owner))

    transactionBytes = []
    transactionBytes.push network.tree.getVar(web3Utils.soliditySha3("msg.sender"), web3Utils.padLeft(secondPayee, 64))
    transactionBytes.push proof
    transactionBytes.push network.tree.getVar(web3Utils.soliditySha3("amount"), web3Utils.padLeft(web3Utils.toHex(250), 64))
    transactionBytes.push network.tree.getVar(web3Utils.soliditySha3("destination"), web3Utils.padLeft(owner,64))
    transactionBytes.push secondProof

    myBytes = network.tree.proofBytes(transactionBytes)

    txn = await

    logs = network.tree.parseLogs txn

    console.log logs

    assert.equal 1, 0, "hello"

Apologies for the coffeescript…it is 2.0 now so you get all the ES6 goodies.

So far only the red highlighted areas are working:

There are obviously a ton of areas that have big questions:

  1. Can we create a viable consensus amongst collators?
  2. How do we incentivize them?
  3. How to handle no ops?
  4. Have we really just put ethereum inside of ethereum and erased a lot of the checks that ethereum puts on run away gas costs?

I’m open to suggestions for 1-3.

For number four I think it is valuable to keep pushing this string. There are certainly times where one would want the current EVM to do bigger things. For example: Using this I could write an air drop contract that loads up 1,000 balances for way less gas than it would currently cost…if I can get the collators to validate the transaction for me.

*The proof format here is [length, path, type(1=add, 2=del, 3=null), nonce, value, left leaf0, right leaf0… left leafn, right leafn] where odd layers have an 0x0 on the end but the hash for those odd layers is calculated as the hash of just the left item. Open to better suggestions.

Sharding phase 1 spec (RETIRED)
Roast this Concept: One big off chain shard
Eventual Collation
Sharding phase 1 spec (RETIRED)